pre-Cinema (and its infancy)


A Zoetrope from the History of Photography Collection, Smithsonian Institution

I’m putting together an exhibition on connections between cartoons and “comics” on paper and animation on film.  In my studies for this, I ran across information on early cinema and its ancestors.

Here are some related websites which should be of interest.

Étienne-Gaspard Robert aka Robertson:

Magic Lanterns:\


the praxinoscope:

the zoetrope: 

Thomas Edison and early cinema-machines:

the Kinetoscope:

the  Mutoscope:

The praxinoscope:

flip books:

I’ve got some nice flip books including one of myself!  I have a cardboard Zoetrope that came as a bonus with a vinyl 33 and a third record album.  You view it while it spins on your turntable.  This is all quite interesting (subjects for further research).


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